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[Documents of the State Security Department of Inner Mongolia]

Watch Out for the “Three Mongolia’s Unification” Activities

(internal document of the CCP)

ZHAO Chun-Guang


Report about the Russian and Mongolian situations

(the thirty-fourth issue)


Russian and Mongolian situations Analysis Group

March 28,1992


One. Coming forth of “Three Mongolia’s Unification” view and its activity constitutions

(1)   the origin of “Three Mongolia’s Unification”

On February 18 in 1990, Susuobarin, a leader of Democratic Party of Mongolia, openly brought forward a view of “Three Mongolia’s Unification” at the establishing celebration meeting of this party. He called on more than 470 representatives not to forget the well-known saying by Gkinggis Khaan that “Don’t lose heart to think that’s too far, you’ll reach if you head for; don’t lose courage to think that’s too weighty, you’ll raise if you lift up”. He announced at the meeting that the view already got the support of three “Inner Mongolian compatriots”(this meant Tsenggelt, Khuhhada and Tumenbayar who exiled to Mongolia from Inner Mongolia in 1987). He also appealed that “All of the Gkings Khan’s descendants should take actions” and meet “the up coming Mongolian century” .The basic concept of the view is to “merge the Buriyat Republic, Tuba Autonomous Republic and Khalmig Autonomous Republic of Russia, Inner Mongolian Autonomous region of China, Borotala Mongolian Autonomous County and Bayangool Mongolian Autonomous County of Xinjiang of China to establish the country of “Great Mongolia”  with the territory of current Mongolia as the center”. Since 1990, Mongolia organized “Root of Mongol Association” and “Gkings Khan’s Century” organization and Buriyat Republic of Russia organized “Buriyatan Youth League”. Mongolia’s democratic league took a lead to establish an international organization called “International Mongolian Youth League” in December 1991 to ally Buriyatan in Eastern Europe , Hungary, Australia and Russia with Inner Mongolians in China to ground for the establishment of “ The Great Mongolia” , as they clamored. Recently, the democratic league also sent its members to Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia area to take activities. They clamored that “These areas are the territory of Mongolia, so they should belong to Mongolia,” “North from the Great Wall is real Mongolia”.

(2)   activity constitution of the “Three Mongolia’s Unification”

1.      short-term goal: act to unify the religion and character first.

“One ethnic group must have its own unified religion and character, this will link them naturally no matter where they live, even in different countries. The measure we should take is to vigorously expand Yellow Lamaism (a branch of Lamaism),build temples and Buddhism schools and render Mongolia to be the center of Yellow Lamaism”, said Damdinsurung,the president of “democratic league” of Khente Aimag of Mongolia. To develop religion, Buriyat Republic of Russia invited His Holiness the Dalai Lama to Buriyat to take “Buddhist ceremony” activities for half a month in July 1991. On March 7,1992, Mongolia established “Temple association of Ulaanbaatar”, to “facilitate the management of Low Mass, temple fair and temples and the work of cultivating lamas for the Capital”. To unify character, Mongolia resumes to use traditional Mongolian script. They run evening schools everywhere and plan to finish the resuming work before 1994. They claimed “ ‘Unification’ will be able to have its basis when we have unified religion and character”

2.      long-term goal: 

Realize “Three Mongolia’s Unification”, depending on Western forces such as of the United States. Danba, Dean of academy of sciences of Buriyat Republic of Russia, said ” Democratic process of the world brings twilight for “Three Mongolia’s Unification”. Independence of state and unification of nationality is a present trend as combination of western and eastern Germany, independence wars between three countries in Baltic sea area and immigration problems of Israel proved. It’s impossible for Mongolia to cut two pieces of flesh from the body of China and Russia just depending on its own power. It’s likely to realize “Three Mongolia’s Unification” enterprise when depending on western forces such as of the United States”. Some organizations have put forward “Realize the unification of Mongolian nationality by fighting for 15 years”.


Two. What’s so called “Three Mongolia’s Unification”?


(1) “ Three Mongolia’s Unification ” is a history garbage labeled with a modern tag. There were someone who advocated “ Three Mongolia’s Unification” or clamored “ merging of inner and outer Mongolia ” early this century. In the spring of 1912, Tuomining, a colonialist of tsarist Russia wrote in his book “Mongolia and its realistic importance to my country” that “ tsarist Russia could obtain whatever it wants through enforcing Mongolian autonomy.” “we could find some deferential subjects from the population we get……we will complete the historical mission to unify Mongolian people”. In August, 1912,Utai, head of traitorous army of outer Mongolia bought over by the tsarist Russia, spread words to public that “the Great Mongolia who strives to clear Mongolian border will deport all of the Han officers, camp and army.” By the end of 1913, a delegate of outer Mongolian puppet government leaded on by Namnunsurung headed for Russia to take his intrigue activity of “ merging of inner and outer Mongolia ”. During July and August in 1927, Japanese government followed after the tsarist Russia with the slogan of “ unify Mongolia ”, and then instituted hastily a so-called “Memorial to the Throne of Tian Zhong” (known as the Policy to Manchu and Mongolia) at the “oriental (Tokyo) meeting” and the “ Da Lian Conference ” with the purpose of annexing the “ three north east provinces and Inner Mongolia” itself. They claimed that “one has to conquer Manchu and Mongolia first if he wants to conquer China; one has to conquer China first if he wants to conquer the world”.

(3)   “ Three Mongolia’s Unification ” apparently has its own international background. In the fall of 1990, the United States took the chances of as long as 3 months visit of Zorig, coordinator of the democratic League of Mongolia and some other Mongolian officials to the United States to show their support. The United States charged the expenses for their activity, supported them to meet the Mongols resided in the United States to plot their plans of establishing the Great Mongolia. August 13, 1991, Master Lingyun, presider of Mizongheijiao, traveled to Huhhot with a Taiwan tourist group accompanied with his 15 disciples. He hinted the Living Buddha of the region that he should go out and travel around to “more investigate the outside situations”. He also sent the Living Buddha his own recent photo taken with His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Currently, some organizations and celebrities of Japan, for example, Mr. Jirou Yanagishita, president of the “Japanese Mongolian association” and Mr. Shigeo Ozawapresident of the “Japanese Mongolian institute” also actively support the activity of “Three Mongolia’s Unification”. They take every chances to incite Inner Mongolians that “The Mongolians must go with the tide of historical development and establish a unified and independent country.” In recent two years, he shuttled back and forth among Mongolia, the Buriyat Republic of Russia and Inner Mongolia under the pretext of academic exchange to bridge for the activity of “Three Mongolia’s Unification”.

(4)    “Three Mongolia’s Unification” is flavored with strong religious meaning. In recent two years, Zangchov, vice president of Buddhist League of Mongolia, has come to Huhhot several times to take activities. He made a great effort to meet with someone in the religious field of the region. He introduced the recent situations about His Holiness the Dalai Lama on his own initiative to this religious person. He also urged that person go out and meet with Dalai Lama. In September 1991, Zangchov sent patron saint, Mani pills, holy water and some clothing intentionally as a gift of His Holiness the Dalai Lama to that religious person during the public visit of Dalai Lama to Mongolia. In early October of the same year, before Dalai Lama visited (secretly) Mongolia for the second time, Zangchov sent his third invitation under the name of the Buddhist League of Mongolia to invite that person to Mongolia to “travel around”. Dalai Lama had stayed in Ulaanbaatar for 4 days before he visited Mongolia. He mainly was looking for “congenial friends” taking the chance of  his Low Mass in Gandan Zuu and carrying on the “Three Mongolia’s Unification” and “Independence of Tibet” activities during this stay. After less than a month, Dalai Lama visited Mongolia for the second time. His repeated request to meet this religious person of the region shows there must be a deal between them.


Three. Historical truth against the challenge of “Three Mongolia’s Unification”


History is always a history where the fact surpasses eloquences. During the 3rd century BC, ancient Hun nationality of China had been living on livestock farming in a vast area of north and south of Gobi desert, upper-stream area of Yenisei River and around the Baigali Lake area. In 47 BC, Huns became one of the dependent states of Han dynasty. In early 12th and 13th century, Mongolian nationality rose in the north of Gobi desert. In 1206, Temujin declared himself as Ginggs Khan in the riverside of Onon River and established the Mongolian Empire. In the next year, he sent his eldest son Zuchi  lead the right hand army to go on an expedition for “peoples in the forest”. The areas of Uirad (known as Wala in Ming Dynasty), Buriyat around the Baigali Lake (Buriyat of Russian nowadays) and Yahuti(Yakutt of Russia nowadays) were vested in the Mongolian Empire. Through the 70 years’ southing and expedition for the West, Mongolians established Yuan dynasty. In 1279, they defeated Southern Song dynasty and unified the whole China. In 1368, the peasant revolt overset the Yuan dynasty and Zhu Yuanzhang established Ming dynasty. At that time, the northern border of China of Ming Dynasty started at the west from the upper stream of Yenisei River to the north of the upper stream of Heilongjiang River at the east, including the broad area of around the Baigali Lake. The feudal dynasties of past ages of China had been carrying on effective administrative dominations to this area. The Mongolian, Han and the other minorities made an important contribution to building a unified country of Chinese nationalities. In late 16th century, tsarist Russia sent Gesak corps pass the Ural Mountain, conquered the Shibier Empire and some other nationalities of Siberia. In early 17th century, the Tsarist Russia stretch its talons to the Mongolian area of our country and started its aggression. During the time of over 300 years,  the Tsarist Russia carried out an aggression policy to annex the Mongolian area of our country. It colluded with some imperialist states such as Japan, the United Kingdom, France and Germany to carve up the territory of China seizing the opportunity of the political turbulence of China and forcibly occupied the territory of the vast Mongolian area by means of political trick, external extortion and military aggression. In 1911, it directed a farce of “Outer Mongolian Autonomy”. After the 1917’s Russian October Revolution that successfully overset the Tsarist Russian regime , Zevzendamba’s puppet government of outer Mongolia fell into a desperate situation and then the outer Mongolia decided to renounce the “autonomy” after a series of meetings of the ministers. In November 22, 1919, the government of the Republic of China issued a government order to cancel the outer Mongolia’s “autonomy” caused by the Tsarist Russia. In 1921, the People’s party of outer Mongolia declared the independence of Mongolia and established the People’s Republic of Mongolia in 1924. The government of the Republic of China acknowledged the independence of outer Mongolia. The new built People’s Republic of China established formal diplomatic relations  with the People’s Republic of Mongolia on October 16, 1949. Above history shows that the Mongolian area is a part of the China’s territory from of old. The fact that  Mongolian area was divided into three parts and subject to three other countries was a result of history. “Three Mongolia’s Unification” is impossible to be realized. “I would like to talk about my personal view of point about that. I have less understanding about the current situations of Inner Mongolia of China. But I’m quite familiar with the situations of Buriyat of Russia. As for population , the Mongolians account for 32% while Russian and other nationalities account for 68% in Buriyat Republic of Russia. If ‘unified’, what about the 68% of people? In addition, the population of Inner Mongolia is ten something times more than that of the Mongolia. So if ‘unified’, what about us?” answered Yundun, ambassador of Mongolia in Japan when asked the question that “ Could Mr. Ambassador talk about your point of view about the current voice of building an independent and unified Mongolian country?” by Mr. Shigenobu Yamamoto, congressman of Japan on November 14, 1990.


Four. Several countermeasures we should take against the activity of “Three Mongolia’s Unification”


(1)      Watch out for the knife sticking from the back. It’s not an occasional thing to advance “Three Mongolia’s Unification” . It is closely related with the scheme of “Tibetan Independence” headed with Dalai Lama and the intrigue of “Eastern Turkestan” conspired by the Aisha Group of Sinkiang. Apparently, it’s a part of the long-term tactic of the West in which they vainly attempt to  “Split China into several countries”. After downfall of the USSR and Eastern Europe, the West intensified to carry out their splitting tactic in which they choose Tibet, Sinkiang and Inner Mongolia as their three breaches and vainly attempt to turn Tibet, Sinkiang and Inner Mongolia into Dimishvala of China. We must maintain sharp vigilance for that.

(2)      Strengthen the education of Marxist national viewpoint and the policies toward nationalities of the Party(CCP) to render the cadres and the mass of all nationalities to strengthen national solidarity and maintain national unification of their own free will.

(3)      Immediately handle whenever a symptom of an unstable trend is found. The increasing official and nongovernmental contacts between China and Mongolia with the increase of border trade between them are beneficial to the economic development of both of the two country. But at the same time, it’s possible that the splittists within the border and conspirators of “Three Mongolia’s Unification” outside the border will intensify their activities. As for these activities, immediately handle whenever found. (the missing original)

We have to develop the economy of our region through focusing our forces on it, reforming, expanding the scope of opened-up areas and implementing the stratagem of developing border areas.


State Security Department of Inner Mongolia

March 24, 1992




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