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  Details and References on Prominent Human Rights Violation Cases in Inner Mongolia:

According to official Chinese data, from 1967-77, more than 700,000 ethnic Mongolians were arrested, tortured, maimed, and sent to jail; 16,222 Mongolians were killed during the Central Government's "Unearthing and Cleansing" movement (see attached document "Chinese Genocide Against Mongols").


In 1981, a 3-month long Mongolian student's peaceful protest against the Central Government's so-called No.28 document authorizing large-scale Han Chinese immigration into Inner Mongolia was harshly suppressed (see the attached “Crackdown in Inner Mongolia” and “Continuing Crackdown in Inner Mongolia” by Human Rights Watch).


In August 1987, two leaders of the student movement, Mr. Baatar and Mr. Bao Hungguang, were sentenced to 8 years jail for driving across the border and attempting to seek political asylum in the Mongolian People's Republic (see the attached “Crackdown in Inner Mongolia” and “Continuing Crackdown in Inner Mongolia” by Human Rights Watch).


In May 1991, Chinese authorities ordered a major crackdown on two Mongolian organizations, Ih Ju League National Culture Society and the Bayan Nuur League National Modernization Society. Mr. Huchuntegus and Mr. Wang Manglai, two leaders of these organizations, and 26 other members were arrested (see the attached “Crackdown in Inner Mongolia” and “Continuing Crackdown in Inner Mongolia” by Human Rights Watch). Later that year, Mr. Huchuntegus was sentenced to 5 years jail and Mr. Wang Manglai was sentenced to 4 years jail.


In May 1991, Mr. Ulan Shovo, a professor at the University of Inner Mongolia, was arrested and later tried in secret and sentenced to 5 years jail for discussing the Inner Mongolian human rights situation with a foreigner (see the attached “Crackdown in Inner Mongolia” and “Continuing Crackdown in Inner Mongolia” by Human Rights Watch).


In 1995, Mr. Hada, President of the Southern Mongolian Democratic Alliance (SMDA), and Mr. Tegexi, Vice President of the organization, were arrested by the authorities along with 70 other members. In 1996, Mr. Hada was sentenced to 15 years jail for "separating the country and engaging in espionage", and Mr. Tegexi was sentenced to 10 years jail for "conspiracy to subvert the government and separate the country" (see attached document "Huhhot Municipal Intermediate People’s Court’s verdict on Hada and Tegexi"). More than 10 others were sent to labor camp for 3-9 months and many student members were expelled from their schools. According to Mr. Hada's wife Xinna, because of the hard labor and constant torture by the police and inmates, Mr. Hada's health condition is extremely poor. In her communication to the United Nations High Commission for Human Rights, Ms. Xinna said that Mr. Hada was beaten by inmates with rubber clubs provided by prison guards in Inner Mongolia No.4 jail at Chifeng City. On two occasions, a gun was allegedly held to his head by a prison official who threatened to kill him ( see the attached “The United Nations report on Hada” ). Recently, Ms. Xinna has also revealed that the prison authorities have constantly demanded Mr. Hada sign his name on a prepared affidavit stating that Mr. Hada is suffering from serious heart disease


In 1999, two writers, Mr. Narandalai and Mr. Chingdalai were arrested and tortured during 6 months detention. ( see the attached report “ Mr. Hada’s 16 years old son arrested in Huhhot City”, by SMHRIC, July 6,2001)


In June 2001, the "Mongolian Study Bookstore" and “Mongolian Study Bookstore’s Reading Club”, both owned by Ms. Xinna, wife of Mr. Hada, were shut down and the documents about the reading clubs were confiscated for “the activities under the name of social association without authorization” (see the attached official document “The Document of Huhhot City Associations Registration Administration” and “Huhhot City Non-governmental Organization Register Administration Social Association Legal Status Checking Form”). According to Ms. Xinna more than 200 students who were members of the reading club were questioned and intimidated by the police. (personal communication Ms Xinna to me, July 15, 2001)


In May 2001, Mr. Dalai, known as Bao Xiaojun was detained for several weeks just for "trying to celebrate Genghis Khan's Birthday" in western Inner Mongolia (see the attached report “ An Inner Mongolian dissident arrested because of the Ginggis Khaan celebration”,by SMHRIC May 18, 2001).


In June 2001, Mr. Altanbulag, and Badarangui, two musicians, were detained for several months for "distributing separatists' document" which were in fact some open letters published on the Internet regarding Inner Mongolian human rights situation (see the attached report “Two Inner Mongolian Musicians Arrested”,by SMHRIC June 8, 2001).


The statement that 81 % of the whole territory of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region has become eroded and turned to desert is a quote from “Inner Mongolia Daily News” newspaper ( July 14, 1995 ). The claim that the desertification is due to the intensive over-cultivation is taken from “Grasslands and Grasslands Science in Northern China” ( page 70, Washington, D.C. 1992, by the United States Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People’s Republic of China (CSCPRC)).

  Relocation of the Mongolian herding populations from their native lands to overwhelmingly Han Chinese populated agricultural and urban areas is documented in the attached document “Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region Shiliin-Gol League’s ( Xi Lin Guo Le Meng ) Provisional Regulation on Implementing the Policies of Strategic Encircling and Transferring”).
  “……Over the past two years, at least 160,000 ethnic Mongolians have been forcibly relocated from their pasturelands. We see no mention of Han Chinese farmers being relocated……” ( see the attached document “ A Complaint Against Chinese Government’s Forced Eviction of Ethnic Mongolian Herders” by SMHRIC ).

“……The Mongolian herders who have already lost their homes, livestock and lands have been relocated with little regard to their social and other needs, nor has appropriate compensation been made for their losses……” (see the attached document “Bagarin Right Banner (“Ba Lin You Qi” in Chinese) People’s Government Document” and “A Complaint By Bayan-Khan Township’s Zuun Khar Mod Gachaa and Khoroochin Gachaa’s Herders in Bagarin Rights Banner).


According to the Chinese official news CCTV ( China Central Television ), starting from this year, 125,000 people will be displaced from their pasture land in eastern Inner Mongolia’s Chifeng area. ( see the attached document “Inner Mongolia’s Largest Environmental Immigration Project Starts” and its original Chinese version “????????????????”, June 5,2002, by CCTV and An Hui Online on June 4, 2002 )

  In December 2001, Mr. Ulziitoghtokh and Mr. Unag, co-authors of a book called "I Am From Khara-Khorin", were detained by the authorities for expressing their pro-Mongolian national sentiments through the book (see the attached report “Inner Mongolian Poet and Author Persecuted by the Authorities” by Radio Free Asia on December 5, 2002).


From Yeke-juu League to Ordos Municipality: settler colonialism and alter/native urbanization in Inner Mongolia

Close to Eden (Urga): France, Soviet Union, directed by Nikita Mikhilkov

Beyond Great WallsBeyond Great Walls: Environment, Identity, and Development on the Chinese Grasslands of Inner Mongolia

The Mongols at China's EdgeThe Mongols at China's Edge: History and the Politics of National Unity

China's Pastoral RegionChina's Pastoral Region: Sheep and Wool, Minority Nationalities, Rangeland Degradation and Sustainable Development

Changing Inner MongoliaChanging Inner Mongolia: Pastoral Mongolian Society and the Chinese State (Oxford Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology)

Grasslands and Grassland Science in Northern ChinaGrasslands and Grassland Science in Northern China: A Report of the Committee on Scholarly Communication With the People's Republic of China

The Ordos Plateau of ChinaThe Ordos Plateau of China: An Endangered Environment (Unu Studies on Critical Environmental Regions)
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