Photo Chung Tsering/CTA
Dharamshala: A two-day international
symposium on "1913 Treaty between
Mongolia and Tibet" was held in
Ulaanbaatar, Mongol, from 13 - 14
October. The event was organised by
the editorial board of the journal
"The Independence" of the National
Intelligence Academy of Mongolia.
Twenty-seven experts from Mongolia, India, America, Korea, Russia, Canada, Taiwan, Japan, Holland and Germany attended the symposium. Recitation of essay and fierce debates took place among the experts.
The purpose of the symposium was to present the results of the research of Mongolian and foreign scholars and to share common ideas on the reasoning of signing the 1913 Treaty of Friendship and Alliance between Mongolia and Tibet and all the related political and security issues of that time and the attitude of foreign countries.
Professor A. Tuvshintugs, editor in
chief of "The Independence" and Mr
Kalsang Gyaltsen, member of Tibetan
Parliament-in-Exile on behalf of the
foreign delegates delivered their
remarks on the opening ceremony on
The highlight of the six sessions held during the symposium include Professor Sergius L Kuzmin's talk on “The treaty of 1913 between Mongolia and Tibet as Valid International Document” which was chaired by Mr Tashi Tsering, a Tibetan historian and scholar; Dr Michael van Walt van Praag on “Reflections on the nature of the Mongolia-Tibet Treaty of 1913 under international law” and “Sovereignty of State and the Mongolia-Tibetan Treaty (1913)” by Professor Udo Barmann. Mr Chung Tsering, a delegate from the Central Tibetan Administration in India, spoke on “The background and significance of the 1913 treaty between Tibet and Mongolia”.
Following the closing session on 14 October, Ambassador Ravdan Bold organised a special dinner reception and culture performance at Marshall Palace in honour of the participants.
On the basis of profound research done in Tibetan, Mongolian, Russian, English and Chinese, the members have concluded the debate; unanimously agreeing that 99 per cent of "1913 Treaty between Mongolia and Tibet" is factual and official.
The Government of Mongolia said it is not involved in any way in the symposium, nor it takes any position on this issue.
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