|Jan 11, 2013|
|Recommendations from Inner Mongolia University Vice President Mr.Chimeddorj|
Through hundreds of lawsuits, official complaints and administrative scrutiny, Mongolians in Southern (Inner) Mongolia have strived hard within the existing legal framework of China to defend their right to use their native language. Some sued the Chinese Postal authorities in Southern Mongolia for not delivering letters addressed in Mongolian; some refused to pay fines and fees to government agencies for their failure to provide official documents in Mongolian; some fought to have court proceedings carried out in the Mongolian language; some forced government branches to accept and recognize documents in Mongolian; some advocated and succeeded in using Mongolian in official exams and tests for government employment in the Southern Mongolia Autonomous Region; some insisted resolutely in signing their names in Mongolian in all official documents; others rallied and mobilized thousands of students to use their traditional Mongolian last names in academic papers and documents.
Thanks to the tireless efforts of 6 million Southern Mongolians to promote and protect the right to use their native language, the authorities in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) of China agreed to include the proposal for “Detailed Articles” of “Regulation on the Work of Usage of Mongolian Language and Script” into its annual legislative plan for 2013.
The following is an English translation of a survey on the proposal and the draft articles and recommendations by Southern Mongolians circulated through the Internet among the Southern Mongolians and expected to be put into law in 2013. English translation is by SMHRIC:
“Detailed Articles” of “Regulation on the Work of Usage of Mongolian Language and Script” is about to be Passed
Owing to the collective efforts of million of Mongolians, the “Detailed Articles” of “Regulation on the Work of Usage of Mongolian Language and Script” is about to be passed.
This is a survey intended to gather opinions from all walks of society regarding these “Detailed Articles” that have been entered into next year’s legislative plan.
Dear Mongolians, please forward your opinions, recommendations and expectations without delay. Due to a short timeline, please circulate this survey as widely as possible to take advantage of this rare opportunity.
Once put into law, there will not be any opportunity to change it. Therefore, please use Holvoo Net (www.holvoo.net) as a platform to raise your voice.
Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Detailed Articles of Regulation on the Work of Usage of Mongolian Language and Script (Draft Intended to Solicit Opinions)
In order to learn, use, study and develop Mongolian language and script, the “Detailed Articles of Regulation on the Work of Use of Mongolian Language and Script” (“Detailed Articles” in short) are adopted.
All levels of government units, social groups and business entities shall enforce the learning and use of the Mongolian language and script by their employees. In carrying out official business and tasks, both the Mongolian and Chinese languages shall be used, but as Mongolian language as primary. In using Mongolian language and script, the use of standard dialect and standard writing rules shall be enforced. Employees who are competent in both Mongolian and Chinese language and script shall be considered properly for employment. Required competency in both Mongolian and Chinese language and script would be met by those employees who either were schooled and graduated in Mongolian from schools equivalent to high school or above or obtained a Mongolian Language Level-3 or higher certificate.
Public service sectors and public relations branches at all levels shall enforce the learning and use of the Mongolian language and script by their employees, and shall employ those who are competent in both Mongolian and Chinese language and script to provide necessary services to Mongolian speaking population.
Party Cadres Training Schools at all levels shall offer different levels of Mongolian language and writing training courses to cadres and workers in accordance with their level of competence in Mongolian. The results of final examination at the end of the training shall become one of the criteria for annual evaluation and promotion.
The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region’s (IMAR) People’s Government branches on Mongolian language and script shall actively promote the Mongolian standard dialect and standardization of writing, shall establish the IMAR Mongolian Language and Script Usage and Knowledge Level Examination Committee in collaboration with educational and employment branches, shall develop examination guidelines, edit the examination books and carry out the annual Mongolian Language Level Examination.
As the specially designed examination to evaluate the Mongolian language and script competency level of those from different nationalities, this examination shall consist of both written and oral parts. It shall be comprised of six different consecutive levels starting from Level-1 through Level-6.
Level-1 requires the knowledge of Mongolian equivalent to elementary school level or completion of 400 to 800 hours of standard Mongolian language education;
Level-2 requires the knowledge of Mongolian equivalent to middle school level or completion of 800 to 1200 hours of standard Mongolian language education;
Level-3 requires the knowledge of Mongolian equivalent to high school level or completion of 1200 to 1600 hours of standard Mongolian language education;
Level-4 requires the knowledge of Mongolian equivalent to Baccalaureate level or completion of 1600 to 2000 hours of standard Mongolian language education;
Level-5 requires the knowledge of Mongolian equivalent to Masters level or completion of 2000 to 2400 hours of standard Mongolian language education;
Level-6 requires the knowledge of Mongolian equivalent to Doctorate level or completion of 2400 to 2800 hours of standard Mongolian language education.
Oral examination shall follow the same levels as the written examination. Anyone who passes a certain level of examination shall be given the corresponding level of certificate and their certificates shall be recognized and treated equally with diplomas and certificates obtained through formal Mongolian language education in enjoying preferential treatment including financial subsidies for promoting the Mongolian language.
The development of Mongolian language and script shall be accelerated by law, and the attention and awareness of officials and leaders of all levels of government branches, civil services, business entities and social groups as well as the public of all nationalities regarding the new law and policy shall be enhanced to genuinely guarantee the right of citizens of Mongolian nationality to learn, use, study and develop their native Mongolian language and script. All branches and employment groups from all levels of the People’s Governments shall work to strengthen the development of Mongolian language and script and shall guide and encourage cadres and the masses of all nationalities to learn and use Mongolian. Every government branch and every work unit shall appoint one official from the leadership within the respective branch and unit to supervise the learning and training of Mongolian language and script to employees, to choose and appoint Mongolian language instructors, and to launch a wide range of sound and meaningful activities including “Learning one Mongolian sentence every day” among cadres and the public of all nationalities through special workshops, multimedia courses, radio and TV training, and self-study.
People’s governments above Banner (equivalent to county) level shall allocate a separate special fund for Mongolian language and script activities which shall be included in their financial budgets. Annual budget of upcoming fiscal year for Mongolian language and script development expenditure shall not be lower than 0.05% of the total budget of the people’s government at Banner and League (equivalent to prefecture) levels, and shall not be lower than 0.005% of the total budget of the People’s Government of the Autonomous Region.
People’s governments above the level of Banner/county shall establish a Mongolian language and script work unit with membership structure to assume the responsibility of planning, leading, supervising, administering, and enforcing administrative regulations within the respective jurisdiction. A sub-unit of administrative regulation enforcement shall be set up to guarantee the administrative and legal implementation of Mongolian language and script instructional work. All levels of people’s governments shall create job positions and provide employment quota for implementing the tasks and responsibilities of Mongolian language and script instructional work within their respective branches. Employment quota shall not be lower than 45 positions at the Autonomous Government level, 15 positions at League level, and 6 positions at Banner/county level.
In Sums (equivalent to township), townships and towns where the Mongolian population is concentrated, the people’s government shall appoint 1-2 special Mongolian language and script special workers to supervise Mongolian language and script instructional work.
Branches of public security, commerce, transportation, civil affairs and urban planning and development at Banner/county level or above shall fully cooperate in the implementation of Mongolian language and script instructional work according to their respective responsibilities.
The Autonomous Region People’s Government shall carry out a regional-scale inspection once every two years to assess the implementation of Mongolian language and script instructional work.
All levels of people’s governments shall take measures of incentives and encouragement with a combination of both moral and financial supports to honor and encourage those individuals and units who make significant achievements in learning and using Mongolian language and script. Meanwhile, such measures shall be normalized and standardized in a frequency of once in five years at the Autonomous Region level, once in three years at the League level and once in two years at the Banner/county level.
Mongolian language and script work branches are administrative supervising authorities that implement the work of incentives and encouragement in learning and using Mongolian language and script with the respective administrative units as well as to coordinate, administer, guide, monitor, inspect, organize and implement the incentives. In addition, the branches shall be responsible for inspecting and authorizing the work in its jurisdiction of authority and responsibility. All levels of Mongolian language and script work branches shall submit their budget for the incentive measure activity one year in advance to their respective level of government to ensure it is included in the government’s annual budget plan. The fund shall be allocated to the Mongolian language and script work unit at one time in total without delay.
Assessment and encouragement of government branches and units from the Central Government and other provinces shall be conducted by the local Mongolian language and script work units.
The work of assessing and encouraging the Chinese People’s Liberation Army and other military units and forestry police forces stationed in IMAR shall be conducted by Political Departments of Inner Mongolian Military Command, Inner Mongolia General Armed Force and Inner Mongolia General Forestry Police in accordance with these articles.
“Ulaanhuu Mongolian Language and script Award” shall be given on an ongoing base once every two years to those outstanding individuals and units who make a significant achievement in learning and using Mongolian language and script. The Award to individuals and units shall be administered separately, and the Award expenses shall be allocated from the funds of the Ulaanhuu Foundation.
The following is a list recommendations by some Southern Mongolians:
Recommendations from M.Erdenbayar from Ongniud Banner, Ulaanhad:
1. College graduates educated in Mongolian must be given employment opportunities. All government branches and agencies must hire Mongolian employees who are competent in Mongolian;
2. Official government documents must be issued and circulated in Mongolian, or else the Mongolians reserve the right to take legal action against the responsible parties;
3. Cadres and workers from other nationalities working in Mongolian areas must be able to use Mongolian language and script, or else employment opportunity shall be denied to them or they shall be dismissed from official positions;
4. Heads (highest positions) of Mongolian Leagues, municipalities, banners and counties shall be an ethnic Mongolian competent in using Mongolian language and script;
5. Regulations on Mongolian Language and script instructional work shall be strictly enforced. A law enforcement authority shall be set up to strictly punish those who fail to fulfil the guarantees of the regulations’ implementation.
Recommendations from Mr. G.Sainbayar from Heshigten Banner, Ulaanhad:
Since they are called the “Detailed Articles”, each article should be detailed and specific. However, due to their lack of legally binding features and accountability to responsible parties, the Mongolians’ legal rights can hardly be protected by the Regulations. Issues directly concerning the Mongolians’ immediate interests and practical matters should be specifically addressed. For example, the contents of identification cards, no matter for the Mongolians or the Chinese, must be written in both Mongolian and Chinese; driver license examination, motor vehicle registration and annual motor vehicle inspection must have Mongolian language services; police work identification cards also need to have Mongolian language content on them. Once I refused to recognize a policeman who did not have lawful Mongolian language content on his police identification card and drove him out of the restaurant I owned. For another example, the Detailed Articles must clearly stipulate the responsibilities if a Mongolian patient dies in an emergency room of any hospital due to the absence of Mongolian language service. These “Detailed Articles” will be no different than the “Regulations” if they are written as general statements without any meaningful details and specifications.
It is also a major flaw that the Detailed Articles did not mention anything about the heads of all level of governments who should be ethnic Mongolians, and all government branches and service sectors must have leaders who are competent in Mongolian language and script.
Mongolian language speakers should have the right to file legal complaints against the responsible parties if Mongolian language services for completing official paper work is not available; Mongolian language speakers should have the right to refuse to pay any fines and fees that are presented without adequate Mongolian language written contents or oral explanations by a Mongolian speaking worker; Mongolian speaking attendees should have the right to boycott or file legal complaints against any meeting or conference that fails to provide Mongolian language services. This way the “Detailed Articles” will fully mobilize the broad masses to achieve a new success through which the masses can count on legal defenses instead of administrative regulations.
Vocational trainings, all types of examinations and tests including tests regarding teacher’s training, professional certificates and driving skills, must have Mongolian language services.
Evaluation of Mongolian language teaching schools must be standardized to eliminate fraudulent schools.
Merging Mongolian schools with Chinese ones must be banned to provide Mongolian students a sound language environment. Prohibition of forcible appropriation of resources for Mongolian language education, reclamation and restoration must be guaranteed by law.
Establishing additional exclusively Mongolian kindergartens at the Autonomous Region, League and Banner levels according to need and new exclusively Mongolian kindergartens at Sum and Gachaa (equivalent to village) levels must be guaranteed by law.
Already merged Mongolian Sums (equivalent to township) must be separated from their respective Chinese counterparts to guarantee ethnic Mongolians’ grassroots level administrative rights.
In tests for choosing and promoting cadres and officials, civil service and business entity exams, ones who have already taken tests in Chinese must take the tests in Mongolian, and the ones who have already taken tests in Mongolian must take the tests in Chinese to guarantee equal competition to abolish prearranged ratio based quota system.
National unity or ethnic harmony has been a criterion for the selection of model units and model institutions. Therefore, the Detailed Articles should clearly state that units and institutions that fail to guarantee the most basic equality of language usage must not be chosen as model institutions.
The Detailed Articles should also clearly stipulate that the Southern (Inner) Mongolian Satellite TV should open a new channel for Mongolian children, and invest to produce Mongolian cartoons and movies. Budget for publications for Mongolian children must be included in the Autonomous Region’s annual budget plan to improve incentives to children book authors. Electronic books for children should be published. The environment and conditions of rural Mongolian schools must be improved to develop the rural schools as the base for urban Mongolian students to come to receive their native language training during their school breaks.
Volunteers should be used to monitor and assist all levels of government branches and units in their implementation of the Detailed Articles as well as to promote legal awareness of Mongolian language and script work.
Internet sites and hotline should be publicly available for ethnic Mongolians to file legal complaints against those who violate the laws and regulations on Mongolian language and script.
Recommendations from Dr. Chimeddorj, Professor and Vice President of Inner Mongolia University:
1. In addition to properly consolidating the existing kindergartens, a new kindergarten should be created near the intersection of University West Road and People’s Road in Saihan District of Hohhot, the capital city of Southern Mongolia. A new kindergarten should be created near the Little Turgen River of Yuquan District with nine classes, each of which should have 30 to 35 students, ensuring that the total number of students should be approximately 300 and the teachers and employees should number around 45.
2. A new Mongolian middle school should be established near the University Road of Saihan District, guaranteed to have 16 classes with 600 students and over 55 teachers and employees. The middle school classes of the Southern Mongolia Normal University Affiliated Middle-High School should be moved to merge with it.
3. A new Mongolian elementary school should be established near the Little Turgen River in Yuquan District, guaranteed to have 15 classes with 550 students and approximately 60 teachers and employees.
4. In addition to maintaining the existing Mongolian-teaching classes at Inner Mongolia Normal University Affiliated Middle-High School , the new Inner Mongolia Normal University Mongolian Nationality High School (or Hohhot Mongolian Nationality High School) should be established near the University Road in Saihan District, guaranteed to have 20 classes with 800 students and over 75 teachers and employees.