leaders, comrades and fellow Mongols:
We are the
Darhad Mongols of Ordos. For generations, we have been the
caretakers of the mausoleum of Chinggis Khan who was the founder
of our Mongol nation. Ever since Chinggis Khan’s mausoleum was
established in Ordos, our ancestors, at the price of their lives
and blood, have been fulfilling the mission of taking care of as
well as preserving the mausoleum and the surrounding area.
at the request of Mongol leagues, banners and jasags of both
Northern (Outer) and Southern (Inner) Mongolia following their
discussion, the Manchu court designated 500 Mongol households as
the Darhad. A Darhad Aimag (League) was established and the
Darhad were freed from all taxes and duties other than to look
after the mausoleum of Chinggis Khan generation after
generation. This became a tradition which was honored by
governments during the nationalist period as well as after the
establishment of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR).
following the Japanese invasion of Guisui and Buguut, in order
to win the support of the Mongols in the war against Japan, both
the government of Republic of China (ROC) and the central
committee of Chinese Communist Party (CCP) supported the call of
Shagdarzav, the Prince of Yekhe Juu, , and decided to transfer
the mausoleum to the west. On 10 June, 1939, over ten thousand
Mongols, old and young, after paying respect to the mausoleum
one last time, bid farewell to the mausoleum with tears in their
eyes. The scene was very moving. When the team passed by Yülin
and Hsi’an, a memorial ceremony was held and over 100,000 people
from all walks of life came to participate. When they passed by
Yen’an, both Chairman Mao and Commander-in-Chief Zhu presented
floral wreathes. On July 10, the mausoleum arrived at Yüchung
County in Kansu Province, and was relocated to the Monastery of
Great Buddha (Ta Fo Tien) at the Hsinglung Mountain.
at the request of the Mongols of Yekhe Juu, the government of
IMAR agreed to honor the tradition by allowing the Darhad to
look after as well as to hold the ceremonies at the mausoleum.
the Mausoleum of Chinggis Khan was announced to be a major
cultural relic of Inner Mongolia by the government of IMAR and
was announced to be among second rank cultural relics of
People’s Republic of China by the Department of State. On the
basis of former Bureau of Management of Chinggis Khan Mausoleum
whose members consisted mainly of the Darhad, the name and rank
of the management was changed several times:
for Relics Preservation and Management of Chinggis Khan
(Upgraded and changed name to) Bureau of Relics Preservation
and Management of Chinggis Khan Mausoleum;
of Management of Chinggis Khan Mausoleum;
of Management of Chinggis Khan Mausoleum of Ordos.
years, both the Party leadership and the government have been
showing great respect toward historical relics and the customs
of the Mongols, particularly the Darhad Mongols. The leadership
as well as the ordinary staff members of the management bureau
has always consisted of the Darhad. This guaranteed the
preservation and continuity of the age-long tradition of relics
and ceremony of Chinggis Khan’s mausoleum.
Cultural Revolution, the mausoleum of Chinggis Khan witnessed a
disaster like never before. The Darhad as well suffered from
persecution. Among the few thousand Darhad, not one was left
free from persecution, and many of them lost their lives.
Because of being the guardians of the mausoleum of Chinggis
Khan, they were automatically labeled as members of either the
so called anti-party and traitor group of Ulaanhuu, or of the
imaginary “Inner Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party”.
Cultural Revolution, the Darhad were given a second life as were
the people of the whole country. From 1976 onwards, Bureau of
Cultural Relics and the Committee of Nationality Affairs of
central government and governments of both IMAR and Yekhe Juu
League had raised funds and contributed a great amount in the
reconstruction of the mausoleum. Eventually at the 50th
anniversary of IMAR, the mausoleum was built to today’s size and
Khan, the “Son of the Heaven”, was known to be the greatest man
of the second millennium and his great contribution was known by
all the people of the world. He not only is the ancestor of the
Mongols but he is also the pride of the people of the East.
Therefore, the mausoleum of Chinggis Khan is a cultural heritage
of both the Mongols and the world. It must not become the
private property of certain individuals or organization. Any
disrespect and damage to the mausoleum should also be considered
damage and disrespect not only to the Darhad, but also to the
Ordos Mongols and to the world Mongol community. It is an insult
as well as disrespect to a world cultural heritage.
As a state
level cultural relic establishment, the mausoleum of Chinggis
Khan was selected as one of the 40 best tourist attractions in
China in 1991. It was also appointed as a tourist model in
recent years. In 2001, it was rated as an AA grade tourist
attraction. The annual profit that the mausoleum brought in was
increased from several hundred thousand to millions and even
billions of yuan. Being motivated by the economic profit,
certain people have been attempting to dominate this cultural
entity as a source of wealth to serve their own selfish needs.
Dong Lian Company which was established to “reform the mausoleum
of Chinggis Khan” is one example.
Company is a private business company. The owner, Mr. Hou, has
unusually close relationship with certain local politicians.
This is commonly known in the local community. Dong Lian not
only occupied several thousand mu of land surrounding the
mausoleum through various methods and excuses, they also started
constructing large compound of buildings and named it Chinggis
Khan’s Second Mausoleum. They also removed the inscription with
the handwriting of Comrade Ulaanhuu and re-inscribed it on the
main pillar of the so-called second mausoleum. Something most
unacceptable is that they printed the name of Chinggis Khan,
ancestor of our Mongol nation, on tourist slippers. This is an
ill-motivated action and through which they intend to let the
thousands and tens of thousands of tourists to tread on the name
of Chinggis Khan and we Mongols. They also intend, through this
action, to show their own arrogance as conquerors. Dong Lian not
only is the developer but also is the manager. The real owner
behind the committee of Chinggis Khan Mausoleum is Mr. Hou now.
With the help of some people in the Municipal Government, Mr.
Hou’s Dong Lian Company has already taken over the Bureau of
Management of Chinggis Khan’s Mausoleum. They are also planning
to demolish all buildings inside the courtyard of the mausoleum
which has been there for many years. Under such circumstances,
we Darhad Mongols have no choice but to appeal to your attention
for a just resolution on the matter. We have the following
like leaders concerned to send out an investigation group to go
into the Darhad community to find out about the abuse of rights
by Dong Lian Company.
are the lawful caretakers of the Mausoleum of Chinggis Khan. We
would like you to respect this age-old tradition of us Mongols.
The right of holding ceremonies at the mausoleum has always been
in the hands of the Darhad for centuries. No organization or
individual should be allowed to abuse this right.
UN regulation of protection of cultural relics and Act of
protecting Cultural Relics of China, the original shape of
cultural relics should be protected as much as possible. The
reform of Chinggis Khan’s Mausoleum should go through the
process of recognition and approval by the State Bureau of
Cultural Relics and professional organizations. Otherwise,
illegally constructed buildings should be demolished. According
to our findings, the plans of the so-called second mausoleum
were not evaluated or approved by any experts or cultural relic
organization. Therefore it should be demolished immediately.
has wantonly removed the hand-writing of Comrade Ulaanhuu and
re-inscribed it elsewhere improperly. This not only is a serious
copyright abuse but also is disrespect to Comrade Ulaanhuu. They
should immediately end the copyright abuse and apologize to the
action of printing Chinggis Khan’s name on slippers is a very
serious insult to all Mongols. According to law, such insulting
actions is punishable by law and the wrongdoers should be
investigated for their culpability. We would like to offer our
cooperation in finding the ones who are responsible and to have
them hand over their products.
We hope the
higher authorities will carefully handle the relationship
between a cultural relic organization and tourism. Millions of
Mongols worldwide do place their respect and affection for their
ancestors on the Chinggis Khan’s Mausoleum. We will not tolerate
anyone to view and use the relic as a tool for themselves to get
rich. We will not let anyone insult the soul of our ancestor and
we would rather remove it to elsewhere.
the land law, change of ownership to land must be approved
either at village congresses or by having 2/3 or above number of
villagers agree. Hou occupied thousands of mu of land all
through improper channels, against the will of most Darhad
Mongols. It is illegal occupation. Therefore the entire land
should be returned.
and Mr. Hou are not just illegally occupying our grazing land
and forcing us out of living, they also sullied the honor of our
ancestor and disturbed his soul. Apart from requesting the
government to investigate his responsibility in this matter, we
would like to emphasize that such people are not welcome in our
land. We want them to leave as soon as possible and leave us
Darhad Mongols in peace.
Mongols who are the caretakers of Mausoleum of Chinggis Khan of
names of Darhad who signed on this letter attached.)
English translation by SMHRIC
If you would like to add your name to a
petition drive opposing the sale of the Chinggis Khan mausoleum
and lands to a commercial enterprise and support the continued
role of the Darhad Mongols, please send an email to
with your name and address. Please continue to check this
website for further updates.