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Chinese Authorities Trample on Land Rights of Mongol Villagers

Southern Mongolian Human Rights
Information Center (SMHRIC)
July 26, 2005
New York

click here for the Chinese version of the report.

Additional photos are available at the end of this page!





Victim Nasunbuhe was severely beaten up by police and gangsters on his head and shoulders. Major hospitals in the Banner and League were told by the authorities not to accept any victim of this conflict. A poorly equipped Mongol hospital accepted them for treatment.



In April 2004, Liu Fenghai, Vice Secretary of Horchin Right Wing Middle Banner (“Banner” is equivalent to “County”) in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, accompanied by Tong Qingchun, Party Secretary of Hundelen Sum (Town), Tie Liang, head of the Sum, and Directors Sun and Wu Jinshan of the police department paid a visit to West Hingan Oboo Gacha (Village), home to 110 Mongol households. The visit was the beginning of a series of traumatic events for the Mongol residents which has resulted in the complete disruption of the community and their way of life.

A meeting was held with about 80 villagers on a mining plan on the land of West Hingan Oboo. The officials initially proposed that the Sum government and the villagers, including two other neighboring villages of East and Middle Hingan Oboo could share 8 yuan on a ton of processed iron sand of the mining project. The mining corporation is co-owned by Liu Fenghai’s nephew and a mining contractor from the neighboring Chinese province of Hebei. The villagers did not accept this offer since this mining area would cover several mountain pastures where they keep their cattle as well as own several thousand acres of farming land. Furthermore, the villagers felt the offer was inadequate compensation for such a huge mining project, with an initial investment of 8 million yuan. They eventually reached an oral agreement that the miners would pay 2,000 yuan per household to Hingan Oboo Village.

The villagers volunteered to help drill wells and do other construction work for the miners. In November 2004, the preparation work for the mining was done, but the villagers had not heard anything about compensation from the authorities or from the miners. When the villagers asked the miners for the agreed upon compensation, the miners said they had already paid it to the Banner and Sum. The villagers went to the Sum authorities (Tong Qingchun and Tie Liang) to ask for their compensation. Tong Qingchun told the villagers that Secretary Liu Fenghai of the Banner is in charge of the compensation and Sum authorities do not know the current regulation and policy about the mining. The villagers could not afford at that time to travel 80 kilometers to go to the Banner government in the middle of a busy farming season. Therefore, the villagers argued with the miners and tried to stop the mining pending their compensation. As a result of the conflict, the door and windows of the miner’s office were broken, although no bodily injuries were reported. A few days later at midnight, however, the police broke into several houses in the village and arrested three villagers – Dafuyu, Amorjurhe and Tegshbayar. They were beaten up by the police and jailed for more than a week. They were then transferred to a Labor Correction Center to do hard labor on a farm. The villagers could not tolerate this oppression and humiliation by the authorities. They called up over 200 adults (almost all adults in the village) and drove tractors and horse carts to Bayanhoshuu, where the Banner government is located, to question the justification for the arrests. They spent three nights outside on the street in their carts and tractors. During the day, they sat down quietly in front of the Banner government building to protest the authorities’ arbitrary arrests and deceitful action. On the last day, a spokesman from the police department told the crowd that their “fellow rioters” will be released under the condition of creating no more “disturbances” to the mining. He even stressed a point that anyone who “harasses” the miners will be arrested and jailed for up to 10 years. When one brave villager asked the reason for the arrest of the three fellow villagers, the spokesman said that the three had been at the forefront of the rioting.

Following this, the police sent five officers to guard the mining operation. The police officers frequently sped into the village in their cars to intimidate the villagers at various times of the day and night. It was clear to the villagers that the mining project represented clear collusion between the government officials and businessmen. Throughout this ordeal, the villagers have felt confusion, trauma and alienation as a result of the actions of the authorities. The party secretary and the head of the Hingan Oboo Gachaa have both colluded with the mining operation businessmen in clear opposition to the interests of the now disenfranchised villagers. Despite the authorities’ intimidation, most villagers are determined to continue their fight against a lawless government and greedy businessmen.


Victim Ms. Huaraa was seriously beaten up by police and gangster during the conflict.



In late June, 2005, a new round of struggle and suppression took place in Hingan Oboo. The miners ripped open a mountain ridge, a natural grazing land, to pave a shortcut road to transport their processed iron sand. Otherwise, they claimed, that would have to use the village road. The villagers expressed their concern to the local authority about losing cattle and other property due to this additional destruction of pasture lands. But Fu Liuzhu, an official of Hundelen Sum, and Bayansang, the party secretary of Hingan Oboo Gachaa, gave the miners permission to open up the mountain ridge. The angry villagers gathered on the mountain to block the road construction. Again a new clash erupted when police officers ordered a bulldozer driver to run over villagers and tried to shoot at the crowd with their guns. During the fight, many villagers were beaten up by the heavily armed police. Some police officers sustained minor bruises and their vehicle windows were broken by the angry villagers. This incident caused the villagers to get even more nervous and frightened. The villagers worked on their fields during the day and stood guard with 20 people per shift at night for fear of the police reprisals against the villagers.

On July 13th, 2005, Liu and Tong visited the miners. Then they sent Bai Jinsuo of Hundelen Sum to the village. Bai told the villagers that he would come back within two days to announce the resolution by the Banner and Sum authorities. He never came back and a phone call from Tong declared that both the Banner and the Sum authorities chose not to be “involved” in the conflict between the villagers and the mining corporation. He also announced that the authorities will pull back their police force. Villagers did notice that with the police withdrawing, six carloads of about thirty individuals were brought in by the miners carrying a variety of lethal weapons. Now the villagers were extremely desperate, frightened and disappointed by the decision taken by the authority. Villagers realized now that this mining is not only official-businessman collusion but had escalated into collusion involving gangsters. The villagers expected bloodshed and harsh punishment by the government.

We will send out updates as we receive them. In the meantime, our earnest hope is for the safety of the poor villagers.


Follow-up 1:(July 18, 2005)

On July 18th, 2005, about 178 adults from the village set up camps in the mountains to try to block the road construction and mining. The gangsters did not confront the villagers. But only a couple of hours later, when the villagers had camped on the mountain, a truckload of 50 fully armed police  led by Wu Jinshan and several cars came to the mine. The Police on the truck were swinging their batons toward the villagers and some of them were even aiming at the villagers with their rifles. The conflict did not take place immediately because the villagers were relatively tolerant and also because the police and the miners saw the number of villagers was greater then their own. But in the afternoon, some villagers had to go back to the village to pick up meals which were prepared by kids and elders at home for the crowd. On their way back to the mountain, the returning villagers were ambushed and attacked by the hatchet men. Villager Nasunbuhe and Huara were seriously injured on the head and two other villagers were also severely injured. Nasunbuhe and Huara were sent to the hospital in Bayanhoshuu. The photos will become available soon.

Contact number:

Any of the villagers in West Hingan: +011 86 (482) 491-4058. This line is probably under surveillance and may be blocked. No villager is proficient in Chinese, so speaking Mongolian is required.


Follow-up 2: (July 21, 2005)

Phone service in Hingan Oboo is currently not available. Following is the most recent information obtained from the neighboring village by telephone:

1. The phone lines in Hingan Oboo village are currently disconnected;

2. Electricity was cut off by angry villagers. They are trying to stop the mining process by cutting the power off;

3. Nasunbuhe (who was injured during the attack) got 15 stitches on his head and is not able to speak. He is suffering from frequent vomiting and is delusional. Huara was unconscious for two days and is still in critical condition;

4. Six other people were injured by the police and gangsters during the ambush attack;

5. Villagers all moved to the mountain to block the transportation of the iron sand;

6. According to a villager in the next town, the police force has been doubled to more than 100 armed police now;

7. Since the distance between the mountain and the village is about 2 kilometers (1.25 miles), the crowd’s food supply from the village is becoming difficult. Road side attacks and ambushes by the increasing numbers of police and gangsters are becoming common place in the village;

Pictures of the incident will be posted on our website upon receipt.

P.S. The villagers also have photos of Amurjurhe’s scars on his back and arm. He was tortured in jail by police last winter. He still can not do farm work.


Follow-up 3: (July 22, 2005)

Chinese Police Opens Fire on Mongol Villagers in Southern (Inner) Mongolia

Around 4:00 AM on July 21,2005, Wu Jinshan, Vice Director of Horchin Right Wing Middle Banner, led 60 policemen to attack some of the camps in the mountain and arrested 6 villagers: Dalangurav, Muuhuu, Yeson, Li Temure, Bayanbaatar, and Mandu. Among them, Mandu has diabetes and Dalangurav went through a stomach surgery 13 days ago. Police also battered Shanlong to break his leg. Shanlong’s wife Huuireech and Mandu’s wife Huudaguul were also beaten up by the police. When the bigger crowd of villagers were aware of the attack and tried to rescue their folks, police and gangsters opened fire on the crowd. Two people were critically injured. Villager Mr. Saraa’s body was embedded with 18 soybean-size metal grains, and Ulan’s head was ripped open an inch big hole. Fulin and several others were injured and the scene was like a battle zone. The number of the police and the gangsters totaled more than 100, and all wore uniform and helmet, holding metal shields and metal rods. Villagers threw stones and wood from mountain tops, and the police threw tear gas, grenades and other explosives. The battle lasted over an hour and some 200 villagers from the neighboring villages came to help the Hingan Villagers. The police and gangsters were retreated because of the overwhelming number of the villagers. But the police vowed to attack again and invade the village to abduct children and elders.

During the bomb explosion and gunshots some helpers from outside dialed both the emergency number 110 and the number for the Police Department of Hingan League (District). The authorities there replied that they would not be involved in this case even if any death occurs because the villagers are against “our Government and the Party.”

Now the villagers are anticipating bigger battle and are being forced to be well-prepared to protect themselves from the police attack by making explosives and home made guns. More bloodshed is around the corner and consequences could be even more tragic.

Eight important figures in this conflict on the government-businessmen side:

1. Liu Fenghai, Vice Secretary of the Party, Horchin Right Wing Middle Banner, Hingan League, “Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region”;

2. Bu Teqi, Secretary of the Party, Horchin Right Wing Middle Banner, Hingan League, “Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region”;

3. Wu Jinshan, Vice Director of Public Security Bureau (Police), Horchin Right Wing Middle Banner, Hingan League, “Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region”;

4. Wang Guotao, General Manager of the Tangshan Mining Corporation from the neighboring Chinese province of Hebei;

5. Tong Qingchun, Secretary of the Party, Hundelen Sum, Horchin Right Wing Middle Banner, Hingan League, “Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region”;

6. Tie Liang, Head of Hundelen Sum, Horchin Right Wing Middle Banner, Hingan League, “Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region”;

7. Bayansang, Secretary of the Party, Hingan Oboo Village of Hundelen Sum, Horchin Right Wing Middle Banner, Hingan League, “Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region”;

8. Bulag, Head of Hingan Oboo Village of Hundelen Sum, Horchin Right Wing Middle Banner, Hingan League, “Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region”.

P. S.: Nasunbuhe, the wounded villager, went through operations on his head and a leg. Currently he is in critical condition and was sent to the city of Tongliao, Inner Mongolia for serious operations and treatment.


Follow-up 4: (July 24, 2005)

1. Photos of the victims became available on our website: ;

2. Police raided the village again at 5 o’clock early morning of July 23. Many villagers were beaten up, and Ms. Eryatuu was arrested by the police. Police fled when bigger crowd of villagers gathered to rescue her;

3. According to an official of Hundelen Sum, who asked not to be identified, Police Department of Hingan League dispatched additional 100 police to join the Banner to suppress the villagers;

4. The authority issued a wanted circular to capture Mr. Dafuyu. Police stationed more than 50 personnel in posts on all the roads to block the passages to the village. The authority also disconnected all of the phone lines and cell phones in the village. Villagers stay in Mountains at night and hide in wild weeds in the deserted crop field. Villagers do not know how to fill their stomach without crop yield this year. Police and gangsters are patrolling the empty village to pick up unlucky preys (villagers). This peaceful village has never experienced this kind of disastrous and traumatic event even during Kuo Min Tang or Japanese occupation eras;

5. Villager Tielin saw that the police and the miners planted landmines around the mining area, and even detonated several of them to test the power of the explosives;

6. The authorities and the miners leveled the other side of the mountain ridges and paved a broad road, which destroyed large area of forests, grazing land, and entire landscape. Furthermore, this project broke the natural barrier of the village to the neighboring Han towns. Land degradation will be further deepened, and the possibility of loss of cattle will be increased dramatically;


Follow-up 5: (August 3, 2005)

Following is the photos of the local Mongolian victims of the incident:



Mr. Saraa’s body was embedded with 18 soybean-size metal grains. Two of them, one on his shoulder and another on his head, are still visible on the picture.



Victim Ms. Huudagulaa was seriously injured when she was severely beaten up by the police and thugs during the clash. The right is an X-ray image of her injured arm.




Iron bars, wooden sticks, and explosives used by the police and thugs to attack the villagers.




Makeshift tents of the villagers were attacked and demolished by the police when the villagers tried to stop the mining operation and road construction.





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